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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
P E R C E P T I O N

An Optional Attribute

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Date: 17 February 1997 WRITTEN BY XENO (mlsheltn@cc.memphis.edu)



>> A BIT OF INTRODUCTION

This Netbook was written in response to James Duerr's inquiry in the "rec.games.frp.adnd" newsgroup about rules on the use of vision. With this impetus, I began designing a table or two, then wandering into the hearing category, and made more tables, and realized things like THAC0 and thieving skills can be affected, and only then realized how broad a scope Perception would encompass. Eventually the result is this Netbook you are reading. It has been redone to ensure at least some semblance of scientific accuracy, with the good and much - needed advice of Steven C and Jason Burzenski.

WHAT IS PERCEPTION? Perception (PER) is an aggregate of vision and hearing, and to a lesser extent touch, taste, and smell. Research has shown that were one sense disabled, the other senses would be enhanced to make up for the loss. Thus if a character is blind and his PER is 10, then this shows that he has exception hearing which has compensated for his blindness. If he was deaf then the reverse is true, or else another sense has "enhanced" itself to compensate for the missing sense. Thus Perception has been purposefully made to resemble, but not mimic the subability rules found the Player's Option: Skills & Powers book.
There exists in the Guinness Book of World Records a case of a woman who can see twenty times better than any human. She can identify faces from a mile away, and was able to notice that a piece of thread was really four threadlets twisted together. While one cannot begin to "picture" having vision this acute this gives you some idea of the possibilities of keen human senses.
Perception is, first and foremost, a tool available to a DM to resort to a dice roll instead of having to arbitrarily decide whether a character has heard a noise or can taste something in the food or whatnot. It can also give characters more variety in usefulness and role playing -- that wimpy thief who has little talent otherwise may be invaluable to being able to see the enemy at much greater distance than any of his pals. A dwarf or gnome with very good taste buds might be employed at a high wage as a food/wine taster for nobility, because of their poison resistance. One might imagine a blind fighter that fights just as easily in complete blackness as he can in broad daylight because of his adeptness at blind - fighting. There are a vast number of possibilities!

DETERMINATION OF PERCEPTION SCORES. All PCs, NPCs, and monsters which do not have an explicit PER score are assumed to have a PER of 10 - 11, unless the DM deems that the character or creature should have another level of Perception. This would include birds of prey, bloodhounds, and dragons, for example). For all intensive purposes deities, demigods, and avatars should be treated as having a PER of 19. It also seems reasonable that Elementals would have a PER of 19 when detecting their native element.
For demihumans and humanoids, PER is determined by rolling 3d6. Some of the demihuman races are given below.

     TABLE 1. RACIAL MINIMUMS AND MAXIMUMS



     RACE        MIN MAX   PER MODIFIER



     Humans     = 3 - 18 =   0

     Elves        4 - 19    +1

     Half-Elves = 3 - 19 =  +1 (50% chance)

     Dwarves      2 - 17    -1 (+1 to taste)

     Gnomes     = 3 - 19 =  +1 (to sight -- Tinkers only)

     Halflings    3 - 18     0 (+1 to taste)



Elves have excellent sight; they have a +1 to their PER, while Dwarves have a -1. Tinker Gnomes have a +1 to vision while other Gnomes do not. Humans and Halflings are unchanged. Of the humanoids, PC Minotaurs gain a +3 with respect to their Perception of smell (not sight or sound). Satyrs also receive a bonus for keen senses, +1. Orcs and Goblins have a penalty of -2 to PER when in daylight or when subject to a *continual light* spell. Thri-Kreen, because of their antennae, receive a +2 to PER checks concerning motion detection.
In relation to aging affects, subtract -1 when a character reaches Old Age and -1 when Venerable is reached. This affects both sight and hearing, but the other senses do not normally degrade over time.

USING PERCEPTION. To put it as simply as possible, Perception should be applied whenever there is a possibility of detecting something with one of the five senses. Lacking a specific Perception-like statistic, most DMs use INT or WIS checks to see whether a character or NPC notices something peculiar in front of him, or whether he might have heard an unusual sound, or something to that effect. Perception replaces such rolls, although under some extraordinary circumstances the PER check may need to be modified according to the individual's INT or WIS, such as disbelieving illusions.
Some may notice that psionics are not dealt with in this NetBook. I felt that going anywhere near psionics with this would be subjecting myself to the debate about whether psionics should be considered a "sixth" sense, about whether there should be modifiers to telepathic powers, whether contact should be modified, attack modes, et cetera ad nauseum. I am arbitrarily leaving this up to those DMs who use psionics. For the most part this NetBook only concerns itself with those rule systems within the AD&D game that are accepted as universal.

VISION VS. HEARING VS. OTHER SENSES. To determine Vision and Hearing aspects of Perception, take triple the PER score and distribute them among sight, hearing, and other. A 10 PER can be a 5 Vision, 15 Hearing, and 10 Other, suggesting a character who needs good glasses, has ordinary taste/touch/smell acuity, but can pick up a whisper from across the room.



>> PERCEPTION AS VISION

The following table shows the meanings of PER in terms of vision. In references to specific objects (like cells), the distance from eye to object would generally be six inches to one foot or from eye to table while one is seated.

     TABLE 2. PERCEPTION AS VISION



         25     = Can perceive subatomic particles

         24       Can distinguish substances from one another by their

                       atomic configuration

         23     = Can perceive virii or parts of cells

         22       1,000/1 (1000x normal), or cells in detail

         21     = 500/1 (500x normal), or small cells as normal

         20       100/1 (100x normal), or small protists as normal

         19     = 50/1 (50x normal), or fine hairs as normal

         18       20/1 (20x normal), or thread fibers as normal

         17     = 20/2 (10x normal), or microwriting as normal

         16       20/5 (4x normal)

      14 to 15  = 20/10 (2x normal)

      12 to 13    20/15 (1 1/3x normal)

       9 to 12  = 20/20

       8 to  9    20/40

       6 to  7  = 20/60

          5       20/120

          4     = 20/200

          3       20/400 (legally blind)

          2     = Legally blind, but can detect varying light levels

          1       Legally blind, but can only detect very bright light (such as

                        sunlight at noon or continual light)

          0     = Legally blind, cannot detect any light level; both eyes are

                        destroyed, missing, or nonfunctional from birth or other

                        mishap.



MISSILE AIM. The PER modifier to aiming a missile weapon at distance is identical to DEX of the same magnitude (a DEX of 16 and a PER of 16 gives the same bonus of +1 to attack) -- both PER and DEX modifiers are cumulative for attacking. As before, a creature is assumed to have a PER of 10 or 11 if no score is expressly indicated.

VISIBILITY RANGES. Visibility Ranges for perception, as shown on page 117, follows. For each +1 to Visibility, one may detect one category to the left with respect to environment; i.e., +1 means one can detect at "Spotted" distance, something at "Movement" distance; or detect "Detail" at "ID" distance. For every +1, maximum detection range is increased by a multiple of the Movement distance movement according to the Condition (i.e., a +1 while in Clear Sky will offer a maximum Movement detection of up to 3,000 feet. These figures are not meant to be scientifically accurate, but are a general indicator of the benefits of good vision.

     TABLE 3. VISIBILITY RANGE CATEGORY MODIFIERS



     PER/VISION    CATEGORY SHIFT

       SCORE       LEFT OR RIGHT



        22+        = +4, or 4 columns to the left

     18 to 21        +3, or 3 columns to the left

     16 to 17      = +2, or 2 columns to the left

     13 to 15        +1, or 1 column to the left

      9 to 12      = unchanged

      6 to  8        -1, or 1 column to the right

      3 to  5      = -2, or 2 columns to the right

      1 to  2        -3, or 3 columns to the right

         0         = no visibility



There is another range category that is created just for the use of the Perception Netbook, called Writing Detail. It exists to the right of the "Detail" column and specifies the maximum distance for reading runes, other writing, magical script, and so forth. It presumes that most handwriting is a 1/4 to 1/2 inch tall, from handbills to spellbooks, and is used ONLY when attempting to read written text or examining complex gadgets such as mechanical timepieces and such.
This new category is added via the following table:

     TABLE 4. WRITING DETAIL column of VISIBILITY RANGES,

              (Player's Handbook, Table 62)



     CONDITION              RANGE



     Clear Sky              3 yards

     Fog, dense or blizzard 1/3 yard or 1 foot

     Fog, light or snow     1 yard

     Fog, moderate          1 yard

     Mist or light rain     2 yards

     Night, full moon       2/3 yard or 2 feet

     Night, no moon         1/3 yard or 1 foot

     Twilight               2 yards



COMBAT MODIFIERS. Melee attacks may be affected by a character's ision. Depending on the sort of attack being made, good or bad vision may r may not have a bearing on its success. In addition, AC can also be ffected, through being able to detect where an attack might come from or hether an opponent is going to try a thrust to the torso versus a slash rom the side, and so forth.
Where AC is handicapped by poor Perception, this only applies when a character has suddenly found himself with poor or lack of sight or hearing. He may have been blinded through accident or punishment, or he may have had an inner ear infection which deafened him. Individuals who have adapted to the loss or absence of one sense through the honing of another do not suffer this penalty (people who have known a deaf or blind person can attest to this). As a suggestion, a person suffering from the AC handicap may reduce his penalty by -1 for each level beyond the level when he first received his impairment.
While little can be gained in melee combat with an 18 vision, ranged shots can be improved by a little.
As an optional rule, a poor PER that results in a lowered AC might be able to raise a character's AC above +10. A man who is blind and deaf might be as vulnerable as a fencepost, and certainly how hard is it to to do damage to a fencepost that is neither evasive nor heavily protected? Thus even a 1st level fighter attacking an unarmored man who is blind and deaf should miss only through some fumble. A DM could simply decree the attack was successful but using ACs above +10 would make it more "fumbleful", which is really more realistic than a fiat by the Dungeon Master.

     TABLE 5. MODIFIERS TO COMBAT



     PER/VISION  NORMAL  CALLED RANGED

      SCORE      SHOTS   SHOTS  SHOTS  AC



        25   =   +1  =   +3* =  +5** = +2

        24       +1      +3*    +4**   +2

        23   =   +1  =   +3* =  +4** = +2

        22       +1      +2*    +4**   +2

        21   =   +1  =   +2* =  +4** = +2

        20       +1      +2*    +3**   +2

        19   =   +1  =   +2* =  +3** = +2

        18       +1      +2*    +3**   +2

        17   =   +1  =   +1* =  +2   = +1

        16       +1      +1     +2     +1

        15   =   0   =   +1  =  +2   = +1

        14       0       +1     +1      0

        13   =   0   =    0  =  +1   =  0

      9 to 12    0        0      0      0

        9    =   0   =    0  =  -1   =  0

        8        0       -1     -1      0

        7    =   0   =   -1  =  -2   = -1

        6       -1       -3     -3     -1

        5    =  -1   =   -3  =  -5   = -2

        4       -2       -5     -7     -2

        3    =  -4   =   -9  =  -10  = -3

        2       -8       -17    -20    -4

        1    =  -12  =   -25 =  -35  = -6

        0       -18***   ****   ****   -10





     *     The attacker can make a more precise called shot, such as between two

           parts of a sectioned suit of armor (at the shoulder joint, elbow,

           eyehole, etc), provided a Quality piercing weapon is used -- weapons

           of ordinary construction will not have adequate aim.

     **    Called shots can be made at one range category better than normal,

           assuming a weapon of Quality is used -- weapons of ordinary

           construction will not have adequate aim.

     ***   Assumes loss of one sense; if both Vision and Hearing lost = ****.

     ****  Impossible shot (successful only by DM decree or a simultaneous

           target's fumble with attack).




>> PERCEPTION AS HEARING

The following table shows the minimum sound detectable at an average distance from across an average-sized room:

     TABLE 6. PERCEPTION AS HEARING



        25    = any motion of atoms on the atomic level

        24      any current of air regardless of temperature

        23    = normal motion of air as excited by sunlight from an open window

        22      any motion of air produced by mov. of insect-size creatures *

        21    = any motion of air produced by Tiny creature movement *

        20      any motion of air produced by Small creature movement *

        19    = any motion of air produced by any creature or object movement *

      17 - 18    1 dB, or soft human heartbeats (below normal hearing)

      15 - 16 =  5 dB, or loud human heartbeats (just below possible hearing)

      13 - 14   10 dB, or very quiet whispering

       9 - 12 = 20 dB, or moderate whispering

         8      40 dB, or soft music

         7    = 60 dB, or normal conversation

         6      75 dB, or normal music

         5    = 90 dB, or loud music

         4      120 dB, or the normal threshold of pain

         3    = 150 dB, or the volume of a jet airplane engine

         2      200 dB, or the sound of a great tornado a few feet away

         1    = the sonic breath of a great wyrm emerald dragon

         0      completely deaf, the inner ears are destroyed, missing, or

                 nonfunctional from birth or other mishap.



     * movement is designated as little more than waving one's hand / arm / wing

       / tentacle / etc, levitating across the floor, etc.





I HEAR THE SOUND OF DECIBELS IN THE DISTANCE. I am by no means an expert on volumes of sound. Should anyone be able to provide me with a suitable comparison of actual decibels to characteristic sound levels, please do so; it will much improve the hearing section of this NetBook.

THIEVING SKILLS. Thieves depend on their senses for their talents. Perception percentile modifiers to thief skills are shown below as percentage modifiers.

For certain high PER scores, there are greater than 100% modifiers that are given. While the maximum for any skill is 95%, one should be able to apply Detect Noise and Find/Remove Traps over a greater distance with a PER score. For this reason, the Visibility Ranges table on p. 117 of the PHB is used for range categories, but the extent of the ranges will equal FEET, not YARDS. For each category beyond "Detail", the percentages for ranged Detect Noise and Find/Remove Traps is reduced by 50%. Thus Detect Noise is modified up to a distance of 10 feet.
For Detect Noise, unless in unusual settings the condition is "Clear Sky" regardless of actual weather or time of day. Depending on whether background noise is great or not, these ranges can be reduced as the DM deems appropriate.
For Find/Remove Traps, weather and time of day apply and all numbers are reduced by 1/2, because most traps shouldn't be easy to find. For instance, a person using F/R Traps with a 50% (including DEX, Race, and Armor adjustments), with a PER of 22, in "Fog, moderate" conditions will have a chance of 175% (95%) at a distance of up to 5 feet, a 125% (95%) chance at a distance of up to 7 feet, a chance of 75% at a distance of up to 12 feet, and a chance of 25% at a distance of up to 25 feet. A PC able to have a PER of 19 and a F/R Traps of 100% (resulting in a 160% at "Detail" distance) can use this skill at 90% at 50 feet, and 40% at 250 feet, but 19 PER is nothing to laugh at.
The use of range categories has nothing whatsoever to do with increased visibility of normal objects, in relation to detecting movement, identification, or detail, and so forth.

Perception will also tend to be a bonus or detriment to a thief's ability to Move Silently; good for him if you are deaf, bad for him if you can hear a pin drop. Remember that the hearer's Move Silently is not modified for his PER, but it modifies the Move Silently for any thief attempting to use it and not be heard by him.

Read Languages may be adversely affected by a thief with poor eyesight. Modifiers to this skill are also given.

     TABLE 7. PERCEPTION MODIFIERS TO THIEF SKILLS



      PER    DETECT F/R   MOVE  READ

     SCORE   NOISE  TRAPS SILNT LANG



      25    +400%  +300% -500% nil

      24    +300%  +100% -400% nil

      23    +250%  +150% -300% nil

      22    +200%  +125% -250% nil

      21    +150%  +100% -200% nil

      20    +100%  +80%  -150% nil

      19    +80%   +60%  -110% nil

      18    +60%   +40%  -80%  nil

      17    +40%   +20%  -55%  nil

      16    +30%   +10%  -35%  nil

      15    +20%   +5%   -20%  nil

      14    +10%   nil   -10%  nil

      13    +5%    nil   -5%   nil

      12    +5%    nil   -5%   nil

      11    nil    nil   nil   nil

      10    nil    nil   nil   nil

       9    nil    nil   +5%   nil

       8    -5%    nil   +5%   -5%

       7    -10%   -5%   +15%  -10%

       6    -15%   -10%  +25%  -25%

       5    -25%   -15%  +50%  -50%

       4    -35%   -20%  +80%  -75%

       3    -50%   -30%  +150% -120%

       2    -70%   -40%  +200% N/A

       1    -95%   -50%  +300% N/A

       0     N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A



     N/A   Not Applicable (loss of sense[s] nullifies use).




PERCEPTION VS. DEXTERITY. The following table indicates the bonus or penalty incurred against someone's PER check to hear non-thief movement, via high or low DEX. A guard will incur a penalty of -2 to hear the sound of a non-thief (or thief not using Move Silently) having a DEX of 13 and trying to creep past or otherwise get by without detection.

     TABLE 8. MODIFIERS TO OPPONENT PERCEPTION CHECK VS. DEX



         DEX     PER

        SCORE    MODIFY



         25    = -50

         24      -37

         23    = -25

         22      -18

         21    = -12

         20      -7

      18 to 19 = -4

      16 to 17 = -2

      13 to 15   -1

       9 to 12 = nil

          8      +1

          7    = +2

          6      +3

          5    = +5

          4      +6

          3    = +10

          2      +14

          1    = +19

          0      N/A




LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION. Severe loss of hearing may hamper the ability of the character or creature to understand what someone is speaking to him. There is a percentage chance to misinterpret the words of verbal speech or to otherwise fail to grasp the complete message. This percentage may aggravated by background noise or other factors, determined by the DM.
One's PER/Hear score where understanding one's native language is concerned is treated as a +3 due to familiarity with the language. Thus a person with a PER of 5 (a 25% misinterpretation) can comprehend his native language as if he had a PER of 8 (a 5% misinterpretation). Whether or not this can apply to more than one language for any one character is dependent upon the DM's decision about such things as being bilingual from childhood.
Successful application of the Reading Lips proficiency will negate the possibility of misinterpretation, although imperfect comprehension is still possible (see description of this proficiency on p. 61 of the PHB).

     TABLE 9. MODIFIERS TO LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION



     PER/HEAR  PERCENTAGE

      SCORE    OF MISINTERPRETATION

        8    =    10 %

        7    =    20 %

        6    =    40 %

        5    =    80 %

      0 - 4  =    NCP



NCP No comprehension possible (cannot hear speech).




>> OTHER EFFECTS OF PERCEPTION

PERCEPTION/OTHER SENSES: If a player chooses to "specialize" in Other instead of Vision or Hearing, he must indicated which of the other three senses are above the norm. He must have either a sensitive nose, sensitive taste buds, or sensitive touch. There are advantages for every sense, and an industrious character can usually find work exploiting this talent like he could any other. Examples include tasting for poison or simply being a wine conniseur (sp?), being able to track a scent, or being widely known among the members of the opposite sex for one's massage technique (grin). How such talents would fit into the Netbook of Unlawful Carnal Knowledge, one can only imagine (but I will leave that to those who want to do so).

LOSS OF EYES OR EARS. If only one ear or eye is missing or deafened, the character incurs a -2 penalty to PER checks where the affected sense is concerned. In addition, there is a -4 penalty against PER checks to determine the direction of a particular heard sound or to approximate the distance of something seen. This penalty diminishes by -1 per round of concentration, however, such as turning one's head to notice changes in volume of a sound, or by comparing the sighted object to the estimated distance of other objects of known height (trees, buildings, humans, etc.)

EFFECTS ON PROFICIENCY CHECKS. The introduction of this PER system will of course affect the use of some proficiencies and skills, particularly those which require a good eye or ear in order to succeed. A list follows of what proficiencies might be slightly, moderately, or severely affected, if vision or hearing were reduced significantly.
For each proficiency, it should be obvious which of these senses would apply, although the character can rely on the other three senses (smell, taste, and touch, but almost universally touch). Many individuals could also rely on sheer intuition, rote training, or deft magic or psionic use for some degree of success. If the character's sight or hearing is adversely affected, any proficiencies relying on the affected sense are penalized by a certain percentage, shown below.
In contrast, Blind-Fighting is partially dependent on sound and intuition and training. While poor or disabled vision will hamper a character's THAC0 rolls, use of Blind-Fighting will negate this penalty.
Proficiencies indicated include those from the Skills & Powers book as well as from the Player's Handbook.
Penalties to some proficiency checks can be halved if the character attempting the check has the help of another who can act as his "eyes" or "ears", as applicable.

     TABLE 10. PROFICIENCY SUCCESS MODIFIERS



     PROFICIENCY         PENALTY  RELEVANT SENSE(S)

     Appraising          -4 *     sight

     Artistic Ability    **       sight

     Blacksmithing       **       sight

     Boat Piloting       -4       sight

     Carpentry           -2       sight

     Cobbling            -2       sight

     Cooking             -2       sight & taste

     Cryptography        -4 *     sight

     Deep Diving         -8       sight

     Engineering         -4       sight

     Fire Building       -4       sight

     Fishing             -4       sight & touch

     Gem Cutting         -2       sight

     Mining              **       sight

     Navigation          -8       sight

     Reading/Writing     -8       sight

     Painting            -8       sight

     Singing             -4       hearing

     Survival            -4 *     sight & hearing

     Tailoring           -2 *     sight & touch

     Tightrope Walking   -2 *     sight

     Tracking            **       sight & smell

     Weaving             -2 *     sight & touch

     Weaponsmithing      **       sight



     *   Proficiency penalty cannot be alleviated by help from others.

     **  Proficiency is unusable if sense used is disabled.




SURPRISE CHECKS. Surprise can have a big effect on combat, particularly when it is critical that one side gets in the first shot (as in taking out a sentinel on the enemys' perimeter, backstabbing the enemy, or whatever). Good vision, hearing, and even smell should be a distinct factor in this (how many hunters try to ambush their prey from upwind?)
The following table indicates modifiers to surprise checks on a d10. Modifiers for good or poor sense on the first column applies once to vision and hearing each; if one has a PER of 12 in Vision and Hearing and PER of 10 in Smell, he has a full +2 in to his Surprise rolls (+1+1+0); a character who has a 15 in Hearing, a 2 in Sight, and a 20 in Smell, his Surprise check has no modifiers (+2-7+5 = 0).

     TABLE 11. SURPRISE CHECKS



      25  +9

      24  +8

      23  +7

      22  +6

      21  +5

      20  +5

      19  +4

      18  +4

      17  +3

      16  +3

      15  +2

      14  +2

      13  +1

      12  +1

      11  nil

      10  nil

       9  nil

       8  -1

       7  -2

       6  -3

       5  -4

       4  -5

       3  -6

       2  -7

       1  -8

       0  -9





>> PERCEPTION TEMPLATE

The following table is a summary of all other tables, intended to be used the same way as the tables of the other six attributes, as found on pp. 14 - 18 in the PHB. Please forgive the absence of the neat-o white, grey, and blue shading; I only used WordPerfect 5.1 and a generic Windows text editor to write this document (but hopefully in the future I will get some access to Microsoft Word for Windows).

     TABLE 12. COMPILED PERCEPTION MODIFIERS



     SCORE   MODIFIERS TO COMBAT   VIS  THIEF SKILL MODIFIERS PER  LNG SUR

                                   CAT Detct F/Rem Move  Read VS.  COM CHK

            Normal Calld Rangd AC  MOD Noise Traps Silnt Lang DEX

            Shot   Shot  Shot  Adj [1]  [2]   [3]             [4]  [5] [6]



      25    +1     +3[7] +5[8] +2  +4  +400% +300% -500% nil   -50 nil +10

      24    +1     +3[7] +4[8] +2  +4  +300% +225% -400% nil   -37 nil +9

      23    +1     +3[7] +4[8] +2  +4  +250% +175% -300% nil   -25 nil +8

      22    +1     +2[7] +4[8] +2  +4  +200% +125% -250% nil   -18 nil +7

      21    +1     +2[7] +4[8] +2  +3  +150% +100% -200% nil   -12 nil +6

      20    +1     +2[7] +3[8] +2  +3  +100% +80%  -150% nil   -7  nil +5

      19    +1     +2[7] +3[8] +2  +3  +80%  +60%  -110% nil   -4  nil +4

      18    +1     +2[7] +3[8] +2  +3  +60%  +40%  -80%  nil   -4  nil +4

      17    +1     +1[7] +2    +1  +2  +40%  +20%  -55%  nil   -2  nil +3

      16    +1     +1    +2    +1  +2  +20%  +10%  -35%  nil   -2  nil +3

      15    0      +1    +2    +1  +1  +15%  +5%   -20%  nil   -1  nil +2

      14    0      +1    +1    0   +1  +10%  nil   -10%  nil   -1  nil +2

      13    0      0     1     0   +1  +5%   nil   -5%   nil   -1  nil +1

      12    0      0     0     0   0   +5%   nil   -5%   nil   nil nil +1

      11    0      0     0     0   0   nil   nil   nil   nil   nil nil nil

      10    0      0     0     0   0   nil   nil   nil   nil   nil nil nil

       9    0      0     -1    0   0   nil   nil   +5%   nil   nil nil -1

       8    0      -1    -1    0   +1  -5%   nil   +5%   -5%   +1  nil -2

       7    0      -1    -2    -1  +1  -10%  -5%   +15%  -10%  +2  20% -3

       6    -1     -3    -3    -1  +1  -15%  -10%  +25%  -25%  +3  40% -4

       5    -1     -3    -5    -2  +2  -25%  -15%  +50%  -50%  +5  80% -5

       4    -2     -5    -7    -2  +2  -35%  -20%  +80%  -75%  +6  N/A -6

       3    -4     -9    -10   -3  +2  -50%  -30%  +150% -120% +10 N/A -7

       2    -8     -17   -20   -4  +3  -70%  -40%  +200% N/A   +14 N/A -8

       1    -12    -25   -35   -6  +3  -95%  -50%  +300% N/A   +19 N/A -9

       0    -18[9] [10]  [10]  -10 N/A N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A N/A -10



N/A Not Applicable (loss of sense[s] nullifies use)

[1]  Visibility Category Modifier

[2]  Percentiles above 100% = 95% at melee distance; at Short, Medium, Long and

     greater distances, percentile decreases by 100% per category



[4]  Opponent's Perception vs. Dexterity

[5]  Language Comprehension

[6]  Surprise Check Modifier

[7]  The attacker can make a more precise called shot, such as between two parts

     of a sectioned suit of armor (at the shoulder joint, elbow, eyehole, etc),

     provided a Quality piercing weapon is used -- weapons of ordinary

     construction will not have adequate aim.

[8]  Called shots can be made at one range category better than normal, assuming

     a weapon of Quality is used -- weapons of ordinary construction will not

     have adequate aim.

[9]  Assumes loss of one sense; if both Vision and Hearing lost: ****.

[10] An impossible shot (successful attack only by DM decree or a simultaneous

     fumble by the target).







~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

(c) 1997 by Xeno, where applicable.

E-MAIL ADDRESS: mlsheltn@cc.memphis.edu

WEB PAGE: http://www.people.memphis.edu/~mlsheltn

Creator of the NetBook of Heretic and the Puritan class.

Created:  7 February 1997

Revised: 17 February 1997

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



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This document has been edited for legibility purposes by



     OLIK  /  Ole A. Ringdal

     olear@online.no  /  http://home.sol.no/olear

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