Lesson 5: Xenocrypt Morphology

                           BY LANAKI
                       December 27, 1995
                           Revision 0

                           LECTURE 5
                       XENOCRYPT MORPHOLOGY


In Lecture 5, we begin our attack on substitution ciphers
created in languages other than English.  First, we develop an
understanding of cryptography in its role as a cultural
universal.  Next, we tour the elements of language and the
common cryptographic threads that make cryptographic analysis
possible.  We then look at GERMAN Xenocrypts, applied traffic
analysis and the ADFGVX cipher of 1918 WWI vintage.


Xenocrypts are foreign language substitutions.  Solving a
Xenocrypt (aka XENO) gives double pleasure; not only do you
have the fun of solving, but also the satisfaction of knowing
that you are acquiring a bowing acquaintance with other

PHOENIX has compiled and edited a Xenocrypt handbook [XEN1]
which brings together material published in The Cryptogram
since 1940.  The book will be available to the KREWE in 1996.
It is an excellent tool.  Lectures 5-7 will augment his
efforts.  Quoted from PHOENIX's Preface in reference [XEN1]:

 " Don't be afraid of Xenocrypts.  The languages used
 should not offer particular difficulties.  Comparing an
 English printers table (ETAINORSH...)  with any of these
 languages will show a lot of resemblance.  That's because
 English contains elements of most of the languages.  Spellings
 and endings will differ, but there often will be solid 'root'
 that strongly resembles an English word.  Most short English
 words are of Saxon origin, akin to Danish, Swedish, Dutch, and
 more remotely German.  Longer words come to us from Latin or
 Norman - French in many instances, and all have cognates in
 common with English, generally differing slightly from the
 English version, but often not at all, especially in French. "

In New Orleans, I keynoted the 1994 ACA Convention with the
possibility that any language could be learned from its
cryptographic building blocks.  Xenocrypts represent a cultural
universal expressed at its common denominator -  mathematics.

I suggested that languages be taught in schools first via
cryptography and then via sound and structure.  This is how I
taught myself the rudiments of Russian, Japanese and Korean.
Cryptography enhanced my passable understanding of French and
reasonable efforts with German.

The real enjoyment came when I could understand Goethe in
German, and translated parts of Budo Shoshinshu by the 17
Century author Daidoji Yuzan [SADL].  Solving Xeno's can open
our eyes to other cultures.


Linguistic anthropologists have used cryptography to
reconstruct ancient languages by comparing contemporary
descendants and in so doing make discoveries about history.
Others make inferences about universal features of language,
linking them to uniformities in the brain.  Still others study
linguistic differences to discover varied world views and
patterns of thought in a multitude of cultures.  [KOTT]

The Rossetta Stone found by the Egyptian Dhautpol and the
French officer Pierre-Francois Bouchard near the town of
Rosetta in the Nile Delta, gave us a look at Syriac, Greek and
Egyptian Hieroglyphs all of the same text.  The fascinating
story of its decipherment is covered in Kahn. [KAHN]  Of
special interest was the final decipherment of the Egyptian
writing containing homophones - different signs standing for
the same sound.  [ROSE]

Until the late 1950's linguists thought that the study of
language should proceed through a sequence of stages of
analysis.  The first stage was phonology, the study of sounds
used in speech.  Phones are speech sounds present and
significant in each language.  They were recorded using the
International Phonetic Alphabet, a series of symbols devised to
describe dozens of sounds that occur in different languages.

The next stage was morphology, the study of forms in which
sound combine, to form morphemes - words and their meaningful
constituents.  The word cats has two morphemes /cat/ and /s/
indicating the animal and plurality.  A lexicon is a dictionary
of all morphemes.  A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit
of speech.  [MAYA]  Isolating or analytic languages are those
in which words are morphologically unanalyzable, like Chinese
or Vietnamese.   Agglutinative languages string together
successive morphemes.  Turkish is a good example of this.
Inflection languages change the form of a word to mark all
kinds of grammar distinctions, such as tense or gender.  Indo-
European languages tend to be highly inflectional.

The next step was to study syntax, the arrangement and order of
words in phrases and sentences.


No language contains all the sounds in the International
Phonetic Alphabet.  Nor is the number of phonemes  -significant
sound contrasts in a given language - infinite.  Phonemes lack
meaning in themselves but through sound contrasts distinguish
meaning.  We find them in minimal pairs, words that resemble
each in al but one sound.  An example is the minimal pair
pit/bit.  The /p/ and /b/ are phonemes in English.  Another
example is bit and beat which separates the phonemes /I/ and
/i/ in English.  [KOTT]  Friedman describes a similar phenomena
called homologs and uses them to solve a variety of
cryptograms. [FR2]  A phoneme is the smallest unit of
distinctive sound.  [MAYA]

Standard (American) English (SE), the region free dialect of TV
network newscasters, has about thirty-five phonemes of at least
eleven vowels and twenty four consonants.  The number of
phonemes varies from language to language - from fifteen to
sixty, averaging between thirty and forty.  The number of
phonemes varies between dialects.  In American English, vowel
phonemes vary noticeably from dialect to dialect.  Readers
should pronounce the words in Figure 5-1, paying attention to
whether they distinguish each of the vowel sounds.  We
Americans do not generally pronounce them at all.   [BOLI]

                           Figure 5-1

                         Vowel Phonemes
                   Standard American English
       According to Height of Tongue and Tongue Position
               in Front, Center and Back of Mouth

                                            Tongue High
               i                u
                I              U
                 ea     ua    o
                  e          ou                 Mid
                   ae       a

                                           Tongue Low

    Tongue            Central              Tongue
     Front                                 Back

Phonetic symbols are identified by English words that include
them; note that most are minimal pairs.

high front  (spread)                   [i]  as in beat
lower high front (spread)              [I]  as in bit
mid front  (spread)                    [ea] as in bait
lower mid front (spread)               [e]  as in bet
low front                              [ae] as in bat
central                                [ua] as in butt
low back                               [a]  as in pot
lower mid back (rounded)               [ou] as in bought
mid back (rounded)                     [o]  as in boat
lower high back (rounded)              [U]  as in put
high back (rounded)                    [u]  as in boot

Phonetics studies sounds in general, what people actually say
in various languages.

Phonemics is concerned with sound contrasts of a particular
language.  In English /b/ and /v/ are phonemes, occurring in
minimal pairs such as bat and vat.  In Spanish, the contract
between [b] and [v] doesn't distinguish meaning, and are not
phonemes.  The [b] sound is used in Spanish to pronounce words
spelled with either b or v. (Non phonemic phones are enclosed
in brackets).

In any language a given phoneme extends over a phonetic range.
In English the phoneme /p/ ignores the phonetic contrast
between the [pH] in pin and the [p] in spin.  How many of you
noticed the difference?  [pH] is aspirated, so that a puff of
air follows the [p]. not true with [p] in spin.  To see the
difference, light a match and watch the flame as you say the
two words.  In Chinese the contrast between [p] and [pH] is
distinguished only by the contrast between an aspirated and
unaspirated [p].  [BOLI]


Norm Chomsky's influential book Syntactic Structures (1957)
advocated a new method of linguistic analysis - Transform-
ational-generative grammar.  [CHOM] Chomsky felt that a
language is more than the surface phenomena just discussed
(sounds, words, word order).  He felt that all languages shared
a limed set of organizing principles.  Chomsky observed that
every normal child who grows up in society develops language
easily and automatically.  This occurs because the brain
contains a genetically transmitted blueprint, or basic
linguistic plan for building language.  Chomsky called this
universal grammar.  As children learn their native language,
they experiment with their blueprint, reject some sections
applying to other languages and gradually focus in and accept
the principles of their own language.  They do this at about
the same age.  His study also showed that we learn languages at
similar rates.  There are universal improper generalizations
(foot, foots; hit, hitted) which eventually are corrected.

We master a specific grammar as we learn to speak.  These rules
let us convert what we want to say into what we do say.  People
who hear us and speak our language understand our meaning.
This works at a cryptographic level also.  Chomsky
distinguishes between competence (what the speaker must and
does know about his language in order to speak and understand)
and performance (what a speaker actually says in social
situations or writes to someone ).  Competence develops during
childhood and becomes an unconscious structure.  The linguist
or cryptographer must discover the structure by looking at
deep structures (the mental level) and the surface structure
(actual speech) to find the transformational rules that link
them.   Figure 5-2. shows the Chomsky Model.

                           Figure 5-2
                         Chomsky Model
               For Message From Speaker to Hearer
                    or Writer on Both Sides

           ... Sounds (phonological component)...
           .                                    .
           .                                    .
           .                                    .
 Surface-structure sentence        Surface-structure sentence
           .                                    .
           .                                    .
 Transformational rule             Transformational rule
           .                                    .
           .                                    .
 Deep structure sentence           Deep structure sentence
           .                                    .
           .                                    .
           .                                    .
         Thought                             Thought
 (meaning, semantic component      (meaning, semantic component
        SPEAKER                              HEARER

The Chomsky model tells us why Xenos are so valuable.
The human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing
language.  The fact that people can learn foreign languages and
that words and ideas can be translated from one language into
another supports the Chomsky model that all humans have similar
linguistic abilities and thought processes.


Other linguists take the view that rather than universal
structures as clues to relationships between languages, they
belief that different languages produce different thinking
and writing.  Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf argue that
speakers think about things in particular ways.  For example,
the third person singular pronouns of English (he, she, him,
her, his, hers)  distinguish gender, whereas those of the
Palaung of Burma do not. [BURL]  [SAPR]  [WHOR]

Gender exists in English, although a fully developed noun-
gender and adjative-agreement system as in French and other
Romance Languages (la belle fille, la beau fils), does not.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that English speakers
pay more attention to differences between males and females
than the Palaung but less than the French and Spanish speakers.

English divides time into past, present, and future.  Hopi,
a language of the Pueblo region of the Native American
Southwest does not.  Hopi does distinguish between events that
exist or have existed and those don't or don't yet, along with
imaginary and hypothetical events.  Differing perceptions of
time and reality cause difference in spoken and written


A lexicon or vocabulary is a language's dictionary, its set of
names for things, events and ideas.  APEX DX can probably
confirm that Eskimos have several distinct words for snow. In
English all forms of snow are the same (unless you are a dope
dealer).  The Nuer of the Sudan have an elaborate vocabulary to
describe cattle.  Specialized distinctions between groups is
called focal vocabulary.  Cattle vocabulary of Texas ranchers
is more extensive than New Yorkers; Aspen ski bums
differentiate types of snow that are missing from the lexicons
of Florida retirees.  Ten years ago who would have 'faxed'
anything. Simplification of often used words are called
monolexemes  and compound expressions are simplified such as
tropical storm to rain. A television becomes TV, an automobile
a car, and a videocassette recorder becomes a VCR.

Semantics refers to a language meaning system.  Language,
culture and thought are interrelated.  There is  considerable
difference between female and male Americans in regard to color
terms.  Distinctions implied by such terms as salmon, rust,
peach, beige, teal, mauve, cranberry, and dusk orange aren't in
the vocabularies of most American men.  Ask a fashionable woman
and she will know them all. [LAKE]


Knowledge of linguistic relationships is often valuable to
determine the events of the past 5000 years.  By studying
contemporary daughter languages, past language features can be
reconstructed.  Daughter languages descend from the same parent
language that has been changing for thousands of years.  The
original language from which they diverge is called a
protolanguage.  French and Spanish are daughter languages of
Latin.   Language evolves over time into subgroups (closely
related from a taxonomy point of view) but with distinct
cultural differences.  Figure 5-3. shows the main languages
and subgroups of the Indo European language stock.

All these daughter languages have developed out of the
protolanguage (Proto-Indo-European) spoken in Northern Europe
about 5,000 years ago.  Note subgroupings.  English, a member
of the Germanic branch, is more closely related to German and
Dutch than it is to Italic or Romance languages such as French
and Spanish.  However, English shares many linguistic features
with French through borrowing and diffusion.  [FROM]

The doctrine of linguistic relativity is central to
cryptographic treatment of language ciphers.  It states that
all known languages and dialects are effective means of
communication.  [KOTT]  Nichols Theorem states that if they
are linguistically related, they can be codified, enciphered,
deciphered and treated as cryptographic units for analysis and
statistical treatment.  [NICX]

                          Figure 5 -3

             Main Languages of Indo-European Stock

  .             .                .                         .
  .             .                .                         .
CELTIC        ITALIC          GERMANIC                     .
  .             .             .      . . . . .             .
  .             .             .              .             .
o Welsh         .             .              .             .
o Irish         .           West            North          .
o Scots Gaelic  .             .               .            .
o Breton        .             .               .            .
                .             .               .            .
             ROMANCE         o Dutch         o Danish      .
                .            o English       o Icelandic   .
              Latin          o Flemish       o Norwegian   .
                .            o Frisian       o Swedish     .
                .            o German                      .
              o Catalan      o Yiddish                     .
              o French                                     .
              o Italian                                    .
              o Portuguese                                 .
              o Provencal                                  .
              o Rumanian                                   .
              o Spanish                                    .
.        .              .
.                     .        .              .
HELLENIC            Albanian   .              .
   .                           .              .
   .                          Armenian        .
Ancient Greek                                 .
   .                                          .
   .                                          .
 Greek                                        .
.                     .                    .
.                     .                    .
INDO-IRANIAN        BALTIC                SLAVIC
    .                 .                    .
    .                 .                    .
    .                o Latvian            o Bulgarian
    .                o Lithuanian         o Czech
    .                                     o Macedonian
    .                                     o Polish
o Old Persian                             o Russian
o Persian                                 o Serbo-Croatian
o SANSKRIT                                o Slovak
     .                                    o Slovenian
     .                                    o Ukrainian
  o Bengali
  o Hindi
  o Punjabi
  o Urdu


Figure 5-3 pertains to live languages.  Professor Cyrus H.
Gordon in his fascinating book "Forgotten Scripts" shows how
cryptography is used to recover ancient writings.  He tells the
story of the unraveling of each of these ancient languages:
Egyptian, Old Persion, Sumer-Akkadian, Hittite, Ugaritic,
Eteocretan, Minoan and Eblaite.  He specializes in cuniform and
hieroglyphic inscriptions and gives us a glimpse into the
ancient societies that gave birth to the Western world. [GORD]
See also references [BARB], [POPE] and [STUR].


There is a common cryptographic thread for most languages.
All known writing systems are partly or wholly phonetic, and
express the sounds of a particular language.  Writing is speech
put in visible form, in such a way that any reader instructed
in its conventions can reconstruct the vocal message.  Writing
as "visible speech" was invented about five thousand years ago
by Sumerians and almost simultaneously by ancient Egyptians.

The ancient Mayan knew that it was 12 cycles, 18 katuns, 16
tuns, 0 uinals, and 16 kins since the beginning of the Great
Cycle.  The day was 12 Cib 14 Uo and was ruled by the seventh
Lord of the Night.  The moon was nine days old.  Precisely
5,101 of our years and 235 days had passed.  So said the
ancient Mayan scribes.  We remember the day as 14 May 1989.


Three kinds of writing systems have been identified: Rebus
which is a combination of logograms and phonetic signs;
Syllabic such as CV - consonant vowel such as Cherokee or
Inuit; and Alphabetic, which is phonemic, the individual
consonants and vowels make up the sounds of the language.

Table 5-2 differentiates writing systems by the number of signs
used.    [MAYA]

                         TABLE 5-3

         Writing System              No. of Signs

         Sumerian                         600+
         Egyptian                       2,500
         Hittite Hieroglyphic             497
         Chinese                        5,000+

         "Pure" Syllabic
         Persian                          40
         Linear B                         87
         Cypriote                         56
         Cherokee                         85

         Alphabetic or Consonantal
         English                          26
         Anglo-Saxon                      31
         Sanskrit                         35
         Etruscan                         20
         Russian                          36
         Hebrew                           22
         Arabic                           28

Michael D. Coe classifies the entire Proto- Mayan languages.
In fourteen daughter divisions of Proto-Mayan, there are thirty
one sub languages from Huastec to Tzuthil.   Extraordinary
story of applied cryptanalysis and applied linguistics.


I used to think that Xenocrypts - non English cryptograms, were
very difficult to solve.  The 'aha' light came on several years
ago, when I realized that most languages share the common
framework of mathematics and statistics.  To be able to solve
Xenocrypts, it is only necessary to learn the basic (group)
mathematical structure of the language, to use a bidirectional
translation dictionary and to recognize the underlying cipher
construct.  [NICX]

Many challenge ciphers start with the problem of recognizing
the language and then the distribution of characters within the
particular language.   The legendary W. F. Friedman once
remarked: "treating the frequency distribution as a statistical
curve, when such treatment is possible, is one of the most
useful and trustworthy methods in cryptography." [FR1], [FRE]

Table 1 gives the frequency distributions of ten of my favorite
languages (sans Russian, Chinese and Japanese which require
character sets that will not transfer via my e-mail).  The
frequencies in Table 5-1 have been developed from various
sources.  Table 5-1 frequencies may differ from other published
data, based on text derived solely from literature or military
sources, because I have included the practical text from my
solved Xeno's over the years.  Letters used in cryptograms tend
to shift the frequency distribution.  Frequencies of letters,
and their order, are not fixed quantities in any language.
Group frequencies, however, are fairly constant in every
language.  This is the common thread - the linguistic
relativity of all languages.  [NICX], [NIC1]

                           TABLE 5-1
    Partial Frequency Distribution For Cracking Xenocrypts

            16   8   7  6    5    4     2       <1

            10  9    7    6    4   3      <2
LATIN:      I   E   UTA  SRN  OM  CPL    (bal)

            18   8    7    6   5  4   3   2    <1
FRENCH:     E    AN  RSIT  UO  L  D  CMP  VB   F-Y

            14  13  12   8  6    5     4   3   2   <1
PORTUGUESE: A   E   O   RS  IN  DMT   UCL  P  QV   (bal)

            18  11  8  7    5     4    3    2     <1
GERMAN:     E   N   I  RS  ADTU  GHO  LBM  CW    (bal)

            15  12  8    7    5   4   3    1      <1
CATALAN:    E   A   S  ILRNT  OC  DU  MP  BVQGF   (bal)

            16  13  8   6    5      4    3    <2
HUNGARIAN:  E   A   T   OS   LNZ   KIM  RGU  (bal)

            13  12  11  9  7    6   5    3     2   <1
ITALIAN:    E   A   I   O  L   NRT  SC  DMO'U  VG   (bal)

            20  10   7   6  5   4   3      2       <1
DUTCH:      E   N   IAT  O  DL  S  GKH  UVWBJMPZ   (bal)

            13   9  8   7   5    4   3    1    <1
SPANISH:    EA   O  S  RNI  DL  CTU  MP   GYB  (bal)


English has its characteristic frequencies and sequence data
(based on 10,000 letters):

%       12   10 8   8 7 7 7 6 5   4-3     2      1     < 1


A E I O U          38.58%

L N R S T          33.43%

J K Q X Z           1.11%

E T A O N          45.08%

E T A O N I S R H  70.02%


Digram Order:  TH / HE / AN / IN / ER / RE / ES / ON / EA / TI
                / AT / ST / EN / ND / OR

Trigram Order: THE / AND / THA / ENT / ION / TIO / FOR / NDE

Reversals:   ER RE / ES SE / AN NA /TI IT /ON NO / IN NI

Initials:  T A O   S H I W C   B P F D M R

Finals:    E S T D N R O Y

Vowel %    40%   (y included)

The ACA Xenocrypt Handbook compiled by PHOENIX, develops
similar mathematical data on fifteen languages presented in The
Cryptogram on a regular basis.  [XEN1]

Review Lecture 2 Kullback's tests and Friedman's I.C. test.

Kullback gives the following tables for Monoalphabetic and
Digraphic texts for eight languages:

Note that the English plain text value is slightly less than
Friedman's.          [KULL]   [SINK]

                  Monoalphabetic        Digraphic
                     Text                 Text

   English        0.0661N(N-1)          0.0069N(N-1)
   French         0.0778N(N-1)          0.0093N(N-1)
   German         0.0762N(N-1)          0.0112N(N-1)
   Italian        0.0738N(N-1)          0.0081N(N-1)
   Japanese       0.0819N(N-1)          0.0116N(N-1)
   Portuguese     0.0791N(N-1)
   Russian        0.0529N(N-1)          0.0058N(N-1)
   Spanish        0.0775N(N-1)          0.0093N(N-1)

                     Random Text

   Monographic         Digraphic        Trigraphic
   .038N(N-1)         .0015N(N-1)      .000057N(N-1)

XENO's - foreign language substitutions, as given in the
Xenocrypt Department of The Cryptogram, are usually quotations,
or simple normal wording.  Thus the Frequency Table of a
Xenocrypt will follow closely to the normal Frequency Table of
its language.  Arranging these two tables in order of
frequency, rather than alphabetically, may be used for testing
probable equivalents.  When words are found, if the meaning is
not known, a dictionary helps.

The Contact and Position Tables are used just as in solving
English cryptograms.

Lets start off with German Xenocrypts.

GERMAN DATA [ Based on 60,046 letters of text in FRE2]

Absolute Frequencies

A   3,601    G  1,921   L  1,988   Q      6   V   523
B   1,023    H  2,477   M  1,360   R  4,339   W   899
C   1,620    I  4,879   N  6,336   S  4,127   X    12
D   3,248    J    192   O  1,635   T  3,447   Y    24
E  10,778    K    747   P    499   U  2,753   Z   654
F     958                                       ======

Monographic Kappa Plain, German Language = 0.0787, I.C. = 2.05

Relative Frequencies reduced to 1000 letters

E     180    T    57    G    32    F    16     P     8
N     106    D    54    O    27    W    15     J     3
I      81    U    46    C    27    K    13     Y     -
R      72    H    41    M    23    Z    11     X     -
S      69    L    33    B    17    V     9     Q     -
A      60                                         =======


Vowels:  A, E, I, O, U, Y   = 39.4%
High-Frequency Consonants: D, N, R, S, T = 35.8%
Medium-Frequency Consonants: B, C, F, G, H, L, M, W = 20.4%
Low-Frequency Consonants: J, K, P, Q, V, X, Z = 4.4 %

8 most frequent letters (E, N, I, R, S, A, T, and D) = 67.9%
       (descending order)

Initials ( based on 9,568 letters of text)

D   1,716     U    550    Z   343    K   263    O   135
A     762     W    544    M   339    P   181    T   106
S     698     G    461    N   306    R   167    C    22
E     686     B    460    F   280    L   158    Q     2
I     581     V    408    H   265    J   135      ======

Digraphs [Based on 60,046 letters reduced to 5,000 digraphs]

   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M
A  4  14  10   4  33   7   9   7   1   1   2  33  13
B  6              48       1   1   5           3
C                            130           5
D 29   2       8 127   1   2   2  60       1   3   2
E 13  22  10  31  13  12  32  24  90   2   6  28  25
F  7   1       3  15   7   2       2           2   1
G 10   1       8  78   1   2   2   8       2   7   1
H 29   1       8  64   1   2   1  14       2   8   3
I  3   1  39   7  91   2  18   7   2       7  12  11
J  4               8
K 12   1       1  11       1   1   1           5
L 26   3   1   6  27   1   2      37       3  20    1
M 16   3       4  26   2  22   1  14    1  2   1   11
N 39  12 118  58   9  57   8  35   4   10  6  10   18
O  1   3   5   3  11   3   3   3           1  18    6
P 10               5   4       1   2           1
R 34  11   5  35  60   9  12   9  37    2  11  6    8
S 14   6  55  13  46   3   7   3  30    1   5  4    7
T 25   3      17  88   2   4   6  40    1   3  7    3
U  1   2   8   2  37  15   5   1            2  2   11
V  1              19               3
W 16              24              20    3
Z  1           1   8               5            1

Digraphs [Based on 60,046 letters reduced to 5,000 digraphs]

    N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z
A  48       2      22  27  23  36   1   1           1
B       3          11   2   1   3       1           1
D   2   4   1       5   6   2   9   2   2           2
E 235   3   6     195  68  28  24   9  15           7
F   1   3          10   2  10  12
G   3   1          11   8   5   8   2   1           1
H   6   6   1      20   4  23   7   2   3           1
I  84  13   1       7  53  44   1   2   1           1
J                                   3
K       9          10   1   5   4
L   2   4              10  12   6   1               1
M   1   8   5       1   3   3   9   1   1           1
N  18   8   5       4  36  27  20  10  17          14
O  33   1   5      18  12   4   1   1   5           1
P       7   2       7       1   1
Q                               1
R  12  19   3       6  22  18  26   6   8           5
S   3  16   6       2  40  57   9   5   5       1   5
T   4   4          14  20   7  16   2  10          13
U  76       2      18  28  14   1   1   2           1
V      21
W       6                       6
Z       2                    4 27       4

Digraphic Kappa plain = 0.0111, I.C. = 7.50

95 Digraphs comprising 75% of German plain text based on 5,000
digraphs arranged according to relative frequencies.

EN-  235   RE- 60  NA- 39  ED- 31  TA- 25  HR- 20  TU- 16
ER-  195   DI- 60  LI- 37  SI- 30  EM- 25  LL- 20  WA- 16
CH-  130   NE- 58  UE- 37  HA- 29  EH- 24  VE- 19  UF- 15
DE-  127   NG- 57  RI- 37  DA- 29  EU- 24  RO- 19  FE- 15
ND-  118   ST- 57  AU- 36  EL- 28  WE- 24  OR- 18  EW- 14
IE-   91   SC- 55  NS- 36  US- 28  HT- 23  UR- 18  AB- 14
EI-   90   IS- 53  NI- 35  ET- 28  AT- 23  NN- 18  HI- 14
TE-   88   BE- 48  RD- 35  AS- 27  AR- 22  RT- 18  TR- 14
IN-   84   AN- 48  RA- 34  LE- 27  RS- 22  OL- 18  SA- 14
GE-   78   SE- 46  AE- 33  NT- 27  EB- 22  IG- 17  MI- 14
    -----  IT- 44  ------  ZU- 27  VO- 21  NW- 17  NZ- 14
a)  1,236  SS- 40  2,508 b)LA- 26  NU- 20  TD- 16  UD- 14
           TI- 40          ME- 26  WI- 20  MA- 16  SD- 13
UN-    76  IC- 39  ON- 33  RU- 26  TS- 20  SO- 16  ------
ES-    68          AL- 33                           3,750
HE-    64          EG- 32

a)  10 digraphs before this line represent 25% of German Plain
b)  37 digraphs before this line represent 50% of German Plain

Frequent Digraph Reversals (based on table of 5,000 digraphs)

EN-  235   NE- 58  IE- 91  EI- 90  ES- 68  SE- 46  AN- 48
ER-  195   RE- 60  IN- 84  NI- 35  IS- 53  SI- 30  IT- 44
DE-  127   ED- 31  GE- 78  EG- 32          NA- 39  TI- 40

Rare Digraph Reversals (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)

CH-  130   HC-  0  ND-113  DN- 2  NG- 57  GN-3  SC- 55 CS-0

Doublets (based on previous 5,000 digraphs)

SS-  40  EE- 13  FF- 7  RR-  6  GG-  2  PP- 2  OO - 1
LL-  20  MM- 11  TT- 7  AA-  4  II-  2  HH- 1  UU - 1
NN-  18  DD-  8

Initial Digraphs (based on 9,568 words)

DE-  805  EI- 300  DA- 244  WE- 192  ER- 153  ZU- 124  ST- 112
DI-  567  GE- 299  VO- 214  VE- 172  HA- 140  MI- 117  IN- 111
UN-  428  BE- 252  SI- 197  WI- 155  AL- 134  SN- 112  SE- 111
AU-  318

Trigraphs (top 102 based on 60,046 letters of German text)

SCH- 666  ERE- 313  NEN- 198  AUS- 162  IST- 142  HRE- 124
DER- 602  ENS- 270  SSE- 191  TIS- 159  STA- 141  HER- 122
CHE- 599  CHT- 264  REI- 190  BER- 157  DES- 140  ACH- 119
DIE- 564  NGE- 263  TER- 188  ENI- 157  FUE- 139  GES- 118
NDE- 541  NDI- 259  REN- 185  ENG- 155  NTE- 139  ABE- 117
EIN- 519  IND- 254  EIT- 184  ION- 154  UER- 138  ERA- 117
END- 481  ERD- 248  EBE- 178  SEN- 152  ERU- 137  BEN- 116
DEN- 457  INE- 247  ENE- 175  ITI- 151  TUN- 136  MEN- 115
ICH- 453  AND- 246  LIC- 175  AUF- 149  SEI- 133  RIE- 112
TEN- 425  RDE- 239  EGE- 173  IES- 149  ESE- 132  VER- 110
UNG- 377  ENA- 214  DAS- 172  ASS- 148  ERT- 128  LAN- 109
HEN- 332  ERS- 212  ENU- 171  ENW- 148  NDA- 127  ENB- 108
UND- 331  EDE- 209  NUN- 169  ENT- 146  IED- 126  ESS- 108
GEN- 321  STE- 205  NER- 166  ERI- 143  ERN- 125  LLE- 108
ISC- 317  VER- 204  RUN- 163  EST- 142  NAU- 108  TSC- 107
ENN- 106  ERG- 106  RIT- 106  EHR- 105  CHA- 104  VON- 104
SIC- 103  IGE- 102  ITE- 101  ENZ- 100  ERB- 100  EUT- 100

Initial Trigraphs (based on 9,568 word beginnings)

EIN- 242  DAS-  79  SCH-  73  AUF-  64  DEU-  61  UNT-  57
VER- 170  BRI-  79  AUS-  69  NER-  63  GES-  60  GRO-  56
FUE-  89  DIE-  76  SEI-  68  IND-  62  GEG-  59  AUC-  55
SIC-  86  NIC-  73  STA-  65  ALL-  61  UEB-  53  POL-  52
WIR-  51

Tetragraphs (50 top based on 60,046 letters)

SCHE-398  NUND-106  NICH- 80  ATIO- 65  RSCH- 60  ENZU- 54
ISCH-317  ITIS-104  UNGD- 80  GEND- 65  EDEN- 59  ITEN- 54
CHEN-296  SICH-103  EITE- 79  TEND- 65  ERGE- 59  KRIE- 54
NDER-243  RUNG-101  DEUT- 78  EBER- 67  ESSE- 59  RIEG- 54
EINE-218  ANDE-100  FUER- 78  GEGE- 65  UNTE- 59  SDIE- 54
ENDE-216  UNGE-100  CHTE- 77  POLI- 64  EICH- 58  URCH- 53
NDIE-176  EREI- 94  EGEN- 76  SIND- 64  TLIC- 58  ALLE- 52
LICH-168  TION- 93  NEIN- 76  TUNG- 64  INER- 57  DERS- 52
ICHT-151  SEIN- 92  IESE- 75  ENSI- 64  EBEN- 56  ENWE- 52
TISC-146  IEDE- 91  ERST- 74  FUTS- 64  ENDA- 56  HABE- 52
ERDE-144  LAND- 91  RDIE- 74  LITI- 62  ENST- 56  ONEN- 52
ENDI-141  SSEN- 90  ERDI- 72  UEBE- 62  IGEN- 56  SCHI- 52
NDEN-136  BRIT- 89  STEN- 72  UTSC- 62  ONDE- 56  DEND  51
RDEN-133  DASS- 86  CHER- 71  AUCH- 62  TENS- 56  DISC- 51
ENUN-120  NTER- 86  INDI- 71  DENS- 62  EDIE- 55  ENEN- 51
ICHE-120  EDER- 83  REIN- 71  EIND- 61  ERTE- 55  NACH- 51
INDE-111  EREN- 83  DERE- 70  OLIT- 61  HREN- 55  NDAS- 51
NGEN-110  ENGE- 81  NGDE- 70  SCHA- 61  TDIE- 55  UNGS- 51
ERUN-109  ENAU- 80  ENBE- 68  SCHL- 61  ATEN- 55  ABEN- 50
DIES-108  ENIN- 80  RITI- 66  WERD- 61  DIEB- 54  NBER- 50

One-letter words: O (very rare)

Two-letter words: ZU SO ER ES DU DA IN AN IM AM UM WO OB JA




Common prefixes: BE- GE- AUF- ER- VER- HER- UN- HIN- ZU- VOR-

Common suffixes: -LICH -HEIT -KEIT -ISCH -SCHAFT --EN -ER -IG

Pecularities: C generally followed by H or K; SC invariably by
H giving SCH

Common articles:
        masc fem  neut plu              masc  fem   neut
   the  der  die  das  die      a, one  ein   eine  ein
of the  des  der  des  der        of a  eines einer eines
in the  dem  der  dem  den        in a  einem einer einen
by the  den  die  das  die        by a  einen eine  ein

True Diphthongs: AI AU EI EU

Consonant Rules

B.  May appear in any position.
C.  Combines with other consonants.  CH, CK, SCH.
D.  Forms gerund ending, -ende, -ende; similar to ing in
    English. Doubles occasionally.
F.  Doubles freely.
G.  Occasionally doubles.
H.  Does not form SH.
J.  Initial letter only. Rare.
K.  Doubles with CK if separated by - as in bakken
L.  Not followed by CK or TZ.
M, N, P, R, T. Doubles freely.
Q.  Same as English.
S.  Freely doubled, forms SP ST SK not SC nor SH. SCH acts as a
    single consonant.
V.  Initial.
W.  Does not form Wh.
X.  Very infrequent.  Sound of X is CHS
Y.  Not a final.
Z.  Never doubles.  Follows vowels, changes to TZ. Rare as a


Ger-1   K1.                                  [BRASSPOUNDER]


A frequency analysis of Ger-1 yields:

G  - 20    16.1%           Try G=e.
K  - 13    10.5%           Try K=n.
J  - 10     8.1%           Try J=i.
S  -  9     7.3%
D,E - 9     7.3%
F - 7       5.6%
N,R,H - 6   4.8%
V,O,U - 5   4.0%
I - 3
P,Q,M - 2
X,Z,A,T,L - 1
B,C,W,Y - 0

1     2     3    4         5                    6
e     i         ein    e i  ni   en  e     e       e

   7       8     9           10             11
  n   n    ne    i     i  e  e   i  e        en

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
           en      e n      e  en    gi e   en  i       n


So the first three letters follow the German frequency table.
Note we have ein.  Word 19 is und? and word 1 might be es.
The frequencies match.  Try these substitutions.

1     2     3    4         5                    6
es    i         ein    e i  nis  en deu s  e       eu

   7       8     9           10             11
 und  n    ne    i     i  e  es  i  e   s    en

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
 u   s      en    u e n   s  e  en    eide   en  i s    und

deu s

A common trigram is sch.  Word 20 might be deutsch.  Word 1
could be es followed by gibt.  Word 17 might be beide.

1     2     3    4         5                    6
es   gibt       ein    e i  nischen deutscher     teur

   7       8     9           10             11
rund  n    net   i     ittel estlic e   st  ten

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
 u   s      en   un e n   sprechen   beide   englisch   und


Word 18 becomes english and word 16 could be speaks in german =
sprechen. (insert above)

I note that I have missed a high frequency letter pair E=a.
Inserting brings three additional words.

1     2     3    4         5                    6
es   gibt    a  ein  americanischen-deutscher  amateur

   7       8     9           10             11
rund  n    net   im   mittelwestliche   staaten  am

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
 u   s   allen   un e n   sprechen   beide   englisch   und


The flow of the german now is clear.  A little worterbuch gives
us the balance of letter relationships.

1     2     3    4         5                    6
es   gibt   ja  ein  americanischen-deutscher  amateur

   7       8     9           10             11
rundfunk   netz  im   mittelwestliche   staaten  am

12  13   14      15        16        17       18       19
 u   s   allen  funkern   sprechen   beide   englisch   und


The keyword = sauerkraut.

Note the simularities to English Aristocrat solving and to
English endings and words.   Note the group statistics of the
two languages and my comments on common threads.  Do you see
how this commonality flows from Figure 5-1?


Lets remove the word divisions and try a German Patristocrat.

Ger-2. Traurige Wahrheit. (zwei ewige) Eng K4     GEMINATOR

     1       2       3       4       5       6       7

     8       9      10      11      12      13      14

    15      16       17     18       19     20      21

    22     23
   RGFJM   R.

The hint tells us that the words [zwei ewige]  is in the
cryptogram plain text.  We also know that K4 password scheme
has been used.  Nichols rule says ignore the descriptive part
in the title as a red hering.

Start with the frequency analysis:

J - 17  15.3%   K -  5  4.5%   O - 0
M - 15  13.5%   C -  5  4.5%   A - 0
R -  9   8.1%   W -  5  4.5%   B - 0
G -  9   8.1%   E -  4  3.6%   N - 0
I -  7   6.3%   H -  3  2.7%   T - 0
Q -  7   6.3%   Z -  2  1.8%   S - 0
X -  6   5.4%   Y -  2  1.8%   V - 0
F -  6   5.4%   P -  2  1.8%   U - 0
L -  5   4.5%   D -  2  1.8%

Let J=e and note the patterns at groups 2 and 3 for the
hint zwei ewige.  So Z=w, D=z, M=i K=g.

     1       2       3       4       5       6       7
   e gi     zwei   ewige    i ge           i e

     8       9      10      11      12      13      14
    ie e           i  e        e   i   e     i     e   i

    15      16       17     18       19     20      21
    e       i         i      g     z i     e       e  ei

    22     23
   RGFJM   R.

The G is a high frequency letter and could be S, A, or N.
Try 'es gibt' in groups 1 and 2.  s works, b works, t might.

   1       2       3       4       5       6       7
 esgib   tzwei   ewige    i ge     s     i e s

   8       9      10      11      12      13      14
  ie e    s      i  e        e   it be     it    e   i

  15      16       17     18       19     20      21
  e s     i t     s i     tg     z i     e   b   e tei

  22     23

 Now we must find the n, r and the a.   R might be our n.
(see last group).  And QQ = mm, A long leap for C=a by
frequency only - later to confirm by digrams.  A short leap
lets us assume W=r.   Placing these guesses in temporarily,
we find the following:

   1       2       3       4       5       6       7
 esgib   tzwei   ewige   dinge   dasun   ivers   umund

   8       9      10      11      12      13      14
 dieme   nschl   iched   ummhe   itabe   rmitd   emuni

  15      16       17     18       19     20      21
 versu   mistd   asnic   htgan   zsich   eralb   ertei

  22     23
 nstei   n

Our digram table helps us with cipher text L and X. X is a good
candidate for u and L = h is a reasonable guess, because EL =
ch brings us two words.   Note group 12 now gives us the W=r
and I = d!   A little help from the dictionary yields Y=v and

Putting the word divisions back in we have a quote by
Dr. Einstein.

 Es  gibt  zwei  ewige  dinge  das universum  und die
 menschliche  dummheit  aber  mit dem  universum  ist
 das  nicht  ganz  sicher. == Albert  Einstein.

The kewords are (facts; SAD).  The plain text x is over the
cipher text S for the initial position of the keying alphabets.


A small sister to cryptanalysis is the applications of traffic
analysis.  Traffic analysis was the forerunner to differential
cryptanalysis and a primary reason for the cracking of the
German Codes in WWII.  {Unfortunately, the same principles
worked on the British and American Codes as well.}  The German
Army (maybe even the German Soul) was dedicated to unquestioned
organization.  Paperwork and radio messages must flow to the
various military units in a prescribed manner.  Traffic
Analysis is the branch of signal intelligence analysis which
deals with the study of external characteristic of signal

The information is used: 1) to effect interception, 2) to aid
cryptanalysis, 3) to rate the level and value of intelligence
in the absence of the specific message contents and 4) to
improve the security in the communication nets.  [AFM]


Allowing for differences in language and procedure signs and
signals, there are six standard elements for military radio
communications systems.  These are: 1) call-up, 2) order of
traffic, 3) transmission of traffic, 4) receipting for traffic,
5) corrections and services, and 6) signing off.   [TM32]

In order to insure proper handling of messages in the field and
message center, some information was sent in the clear or using
simple coding.  This information about routing and accounting
was usually in the preamble or message postamble.  This
included: 1) Serial numbers, message center number, 2) Group
Count, 3) File Date and Time [like a PGP signature] 4) Routing
System - origin, destination and relay, (distinction is made as
to action or FYI locations) 5) Priority (important stuff was
originally signal flashed - hence the term FLASH message for
urgent message) 6) transmission and delivery procedure, 7)
addresses and signatures, 8) special instructions.  As a
general rule, German high-echelon traffic contained most of
these items and German low-echelon traffic cut them to a

The German penchant for organization could be seen in the way
they handled serial numbers.  Any radio message flowing from
division level to soldier in the field would have a reference
serial number attached in clear or matrix cipher, by the
writer, the HQ message center, the signal center or code room,
the "in desk" , the transmitter, linkage, and/or operator.  The
routing system usually consisted of a code and syllabary that
represented the location or unit.  [HIN1]

An example taken from WWII U. S. Army procedure:

A45  BR6  B  STX-O-P  P-A45  BR6-T-N-A45  A-79K  011046Z
A-45-W-F2P  SLW  BR6

GR 28


BT  011046Z  K


A45 BR6  - multiple callup; receiving calls

STX-O-P -  transmitting call with precedence designation, OP=
           operational priority

P-A45  - message priority to A45 only; to others routine

BR6-T-N-A45 - BR6 to relay to all except A45

A-79K - originator of message

011046 - Date and Time Zulu used pre and postamble

A-45 -   action destination

W-F2P  SLW  BR6 - Information destinations

GR 28  Group Count.. note how small for such external
       information envelope

You can see where modern E-Mail and word processing systems
have made some of this information easier to handle by the
portable desk idea but traffic analysis would still apply.

American "cryptees' were adept in determining the German Order
of Battle from their cryptonets (ex. from intercepts re limited
distribution from corp to a theater).  Traffic analysis not
only gave the locations but the communication relationships
between units or groups of units in the field.  Some German
commands were allowed latitude in their compositions of codes
and ciphers.  This proved to be an exploitable fault in the
German security.


American success in reconstructing German communication
networks was partly do to the appropriate (and sometimes lucky)
analysis of the routing system.  The radio station could be
tied into the code group.  Crib techniques included focusing on
the relay point, recognizing a book message crib to several
locations, correlating the address and signature cribs, tagging
the operational chatter, separating the addresses, using solved
messages to give outright routing assignments, syllabary
solutions and changes in the system itself.

The textual features of the message gave valuable information.
Tabulations of messages, text type, and volumes helped
discriminate the practice and dummy traffic.   Recognition of
the communications net as order of battle often gave away the


Traffic analysis yields information via Crib messages, Isologs
and Chatter.  Crib messages assume a partial knowledge of the
underlying plain text through recognition of the external
characteristics.  Command sitrep reports, up and down German
channels, were especially easy for American crypees.  The
origin, serial number range, the cryptonet id, report type, the
file date and time, message length and error messages in the
clear, gave a clear picture of the German command process.
German order of battle, troop dispositions and movements were
deduced by traffic analysis.  [TM32]

An Isolog exists when the underlying plain text is encrypted in
two different systems.  They exist because of relay repetition
requirements, book messages to multiple receivers (spamming
would have been a definite no-no), or error by the code clerk.
American crypees were particularly effective in obtaining
intelligence from this method.

Traffic analysis boils down to finding the contact
relationships among units, tracking their movements, building
up the cryptonet authorities, capitalizing on lack of
randomness in their structures, and exploiting book and relay
cribs.  I submit that American intelligence was quite
successful in this endeavor against the Germans in WWII.


"Weh dem der leugt und Klartext funkt"  - Lieutenant Jaeger
German 5th Army. ["Woe to him who lies and radios in the

Jaeger was a German code expert sent to stiffen the German Code
discipline in France in 1918.  Ironically,  the double "e" in
Jaeger's name gave US Army traffic analysis experts a fix on
code changes in 1918.

ADFGVX, is one of the best known field ciphers in the history
of cryptology.  Originally a 5 x 5 matrix of just 5 letters,
ADFGX,  the system was expanded on June 1, 1918 to a 6th letter
V.  The letters were chosen for their clarity in Morse: A .-, D
-..,   F ..-., G --., V ...-, and X -..-.

W. F. Friedman describes one of the first traffic analysis
charts regarding battle activity from May to August, 1918
at Marne, and Rheims, France.  It was based solely on the ebb
and flow of traffic in the ADFGVX cipher.  This cipher was
restricted to German High Command communications between and
among the headquarters of divisions and army corps.

The ADFGVX cipher was considered secure because it combined
both a good substitution (bipartite fractionation) and an
excellent transposition in one system.  During the eight month
history of this cipher, only 10 keys were recovered by the
Allies (in 10 days of heavy traffic) and fifty percent of the
messages on these days were read.  These intercepts effected
the reverse of the German advances (15 divisions) under
Ludendorff at Montdidier and Compiegne, about 50 miles North of
Paris.  Solution by the famed French Captain Georges Painvin
was based on just two specialized cases.  No general solution
for the cipher was found by the Allies.  In 1933, William
Friedman and the SIS found a general solution.  French General
Givierge, of the Deuxieme Bureau also published a solution to
the general case.

The June 3 message that Painvin cracked which changed the
course of WWI:

From German High Command in Remaugies:  Munition-ierung
beschleunigen Punkt Soweit nicut eingesehen auch bei Tag

"Rush Munitions Stop Even by day if not seen."


This told the Allies where and when the bombardment preceding
the next major German push was planned.


26 letters and 10 digits of the ADFGVX were placed into a 6 x 6
Bipartite Square:

               A   D   F   G   V   X

          A    F   L   1   A   O   2

          D    J   D   W   3   G   U

          F    C   I   Y   B   4   P

          G    R   5   Q   8   V   E

          V    6   K   7   Z   M   X

          X    S   N   H   0   T   9

PT:  a  l  l     q  u  i  e  t    o  n     t  h  i  s


PT:  f   r   o   n   t      t   o   d   a   y

CT:  AA  GA  AV  XD  XV     XV  AV  DD  AG  FF

The bilateral cipher which results is transposed with a keyed
matrix, written in by row and removed by column.

                  G  E  R  M  A  N
                  3  2  6  4  1  5

                  A  G  A  D  A  D

                  G  F  D  X  F  D

                  G  X  X  V  A  V

                  X  D  X  V  X  F

                  F  D  X  A  A  A

                  G  A  A  V  X  D

                  X  V  X  V  A  V

                  D  D  A  G  F  F

and the final CT is:


Known decipherment was accomplished with the Key and possession
of the original matrix.   Fine and dandy but cryptanalysis in
1918, was another thing.


According to William Friedman, there were only three viable
ways to attack this cipher.  The first method required 2 or
messages with identical plain text beginnings to uncover the
transposition.  Under the second method, 2 or more messages
with plain text endings were required to break the flat
distribution shield of the substitution part of the cipher.
The German addiction to stereotyped phraseology was so
prevalent in all German military communications that in each
days traffic, messages with similar endings and beginnings were
found (sometimes both).  The third method required messages
with the exact same number of letters.  Painvin used the first
two methods when he cracked the 5 letter ADFGX version in
April, 1918.     [FRAA], [FRAB]

Lest we underestimate the difficulty of this cipher, I think we
might step behind Painvin shoulders as he worked.  At 4:30 am
on March 21, 6000 guns opened fire on the Allied line at Somme.
Five hours later, 62 German Divisions pushed forward on a 40
mile front.  Radio traffic increased dramatically, Painvin had
just a few intercepts in the ADFGX  cipher and the longer ones
had been split in three parts to prevent anagraming.

Five letters, therefore, a checkerboard?  Simple mono cipher -
too flat a distribution.

The German oddity of first parts of messages with identical
bits and pieces of text larded in the same order in the
cryptograms begin to show.  Painvin feels the oddity could most
likely have resulted from transposed beginnings according to
the same key; the identical tops of the columns of the
transposition tableau.  Painvin sections the cryptograms by

  chi-110:  (1) ADXDA  (2) XGFXG  (3) DAXXGX  (4) GDADFF
  chi-114:  (1) ADXDD  (2) XGFFD  (3) DAXAGD  (4) GDGXD

He does this with 20 blocks to reconstruct the transposition
key.  Using the principle - long columns to the left, he finds
segments 3,6,14, 18 to left.  Balance clustered to right.
Using other messages with common endings (repeated) He segments
the columns to the left.  Correctly? No. He uses 18 additional
intercepts to juxtaposition 60 letters AA's, AD's, etc.  Using
frequency count, he finds a monoalphabetic substitution.
He finds column 5-8 and 8-5 are inverted.

Painvin sets up a skeleton checkerboard - he assumes correctly
the order to be side-top:

                     A  D  F  G  X

                  D           e

Since the message was 20 letters, the order might be side-top,
repeated, meaning side coordinates would fall on 1st, 3rd,
5th..  positions during encipherment, so he separates them by
frequency characteristics.  In 48 hours of incredible labor,
Painvin pairs the correct letters and builds the checkerboard,
solving the toughest field cipher the world had yet seen.  A
cipher that defends itself by fractionation - the breaking up
of PT letters equivalents into pieces, with the consequent
dissipation of its ordinary characteristics.  The transposition
further scatters these characteristics in a particularly
effective fashion, while dulling the clues that normally help
to reconstruct a transposition.


Solve these:

Ger-3.  Kalenderblatt August.  K2 (Sonne)     BRASSPOUNDER




Ger-4.  Ungerechtes Schicksal.  Eng. K4        GEMINATOR




VJBAI   AQGAD   KVELA   D.   hints: (zum zw-;  zimm-)

Fre-1.  French digraphic. Christmas Greeting.   MON  NOM





hints: (noel, plus).  Look out for disruption area in cipher



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[GORD] Gordon, Cyrus H., " Forgotten Scripts:  Their Ongoing
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[HA]   Hahn, Karl, " Frequency of Letters", English Letter
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[HILL] Hill, Lester, S., "Cryptography in an Algebraic
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[INDE] PHOENIX, Index to the Cryptogram: 1932-1993, ACA, 1994.

[JAPA] Martin, S.E., "Basic Japanese Coversation Dictionary,"
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[KAH3] Kahn, David, "Seizing The Enigma", Houghton Mifflin, New
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[LAFF] Laffin, John, "Codes and Ciphers: Secret Writing Through
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[LAKE] Lakoff, R., "Language and the Womans Place," Harper &
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[LAUE] Lauer, Rudolph F.,  "Computer Simulation of Classical
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       written by an expert in the field.  Not only well
       written, clear to understand but as authoritative as
       they come! ]

[LEWI] Lewin, Ronald, 'Ultra goes to War', Hutchinson,
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[LEWY] Lewy, Guenter, "America In Vietnam", Oxford University
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       written, without proper authority, unprofessional, and
       prejudicial to boot.  And, it has one of the better
       illustrations of the Soviet one-time pad with example,
       with three errors in cipher text, that I have corrected
       for the author.]

[MARS] Marshall, Alan, "Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign
       of Charles II," 1660-1665, Cambridge University, New
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[MART] Martin, James,  "Security, Accuracy and Privacy in
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       New York, 1992.

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[SCHN] Schneier, Bruce, "Applied Cryptography: Protocols,
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[WEL]  Welsh, Dominic, "Codes and Cryptography," Oxford Science
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[WELC] Welchman, Gordon, 'The Hut Six Story', McGraw-Hill,
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[WHOR] Whorf, B. L., "A Linguistic Consideration of Thinking In
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[WINT] Winterbotham, F.W., 'The Ultra Secret', Weidenfeld
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[WOLE] Wolfe, Ramond W., "Secret Writing," McGraw Hill Books,
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       Crown Publishers, New York, 1990.

[XEN1] PHOENIX, "Xenocrypt Handbook," American Cryptogram
       Association, 1 Pidgeon Dr., Wilbraham, MA., 01095-2603,
       for publication March, 1996.

[YARD] Yardley, Herbert, O., "The American Black Chamber,"
       Bobbs-Merrill, NY, 1931.

[ZIM]  Zim, Herbert S., "Codes and Secret Writing." William
       Morrow Co., New York, 1948.

[ZEND] Callimahos, L. D.,  Traffic Analysis and the Zendian
       Problem, Agean Park Press, 1984.  (also available
       through NSA Center for Cryptologic History)

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